Most often, forest fires occur:
- through the fault of people leaving unexplained fires or cigarette butts in places of rest or work;
- due to the play of children with fire;
- when garbage is burned by the owners of summer cottages and garden plots at the edge of the forest;
- from agricultural fires.
In rare cases, natural causes are guilty:
- lightning strike;
- Spontaneous combustion of peat bogs.
What everyone can do:
Be extremely careful with fire within any natural territory. To prevent your carelessness from causing a forest fire, follow these rules:
- Never set fire to dry grass in fields or clearings in the forest. If you see how others do it, try to stop them and explain what the fires are dangerous;
- Never plant a fire in a dry forest or on a peat bog. First of all, make sure that the fireplace is located on mineral soil (sand or clay). Before building a fire, rake the forest litter from the fireplace and around it within a radius of 0.5 meters;
- Pour in the fire well before leaving. After that, rake away the ashes and make sure that under it there are no smoldering coals, if preserved, then pour in again. Do not go away from a drenched campfire while smoke or steam comes from it. About what to fill a fire, take care in advance;
- Never throw unsoldered matches or cigarettes, do not use in the forest various pyrotechnic products: firecrackers, Bengal lights, candles, etc. (except for the New Year, when everything is covered with a thick layer of snow);
- do not drive into the forest on cars and especially motorcycles. Sparks from a muffler can cause a fire, especially in a dry forest with lichen cover;
- try to explain to your friends and acquaintances that their carelessness can cause fires.
What to do in a forest fire
1. Feeling the smell of smoke, find out what is burning, in which direction the wind is blowing, what is the danger of spreading the fire, whether there are children in the zone of the fire movement. Assess the situation - is it worth trying to put out the fire on your own or better hurry for help, so as not to lose time and not let the fire gain strength. If you find a beginning fire, for example, a small grassy fir or a smoldering forest litter at someone's fire, try to extinguish it yourself. Sometimes it's enough just to trample on the flames.
2. Pour fire with water from the nearest pond, cover with earth. Use to extinguish bunches of branches from trees of hardwood or tree length of 1.5-2 meters, dense fabric, wet clothing. Apply glancing blows along the edge of the fire sideways towards the fire, as if sweeping away the flame; branches, turn the tissue after each impact, so that they are cooled and not burned in this way.
3. After extinguishing a small fire, do not leave until you make sure that the fire does not flare up again. Report to the forestry or forestry about the place and time of the fire, as well as its possible causes.
4. If the peat bog is burning, do not try to put out the fire yourself, bypass it by side. Move against the wind so that it does not catch up with you with fire and smoke, do not obstruct the orientation, carefully examine the road ahead, feel it with a pole or a pole. Remember: when burning peat bogs, hot earth and smoke coming from under it show that the fire has gone underground, the peat burns from the inside, forming voids, into which one can fall and burn.
5. If the fire is strong enough, and you can not extinguish it yourself, then you need to properly leave the fire - go to meet the wind perpendicular to the edge of the fire, along glades, roads, glades, banks of streams and rivers. In case of severe smoke, the mouth and nose should be covered with a wet cotton-gauze bandage, a towel, and a piece of clothing. Try to notify the state forest guard about it as soon as possible. Call the forestry or leshoz (it is advisable to find out the address and phone number before the beginning of the fire season, for example, you can find it in the district telephone directory or on the information desk) and inform about the found outbreak and how to get there. In the absence of a leshoz (forestry) phone, report a forest fire to state production forestry institutions.